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    Meningitis (Radang Otak)


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    Meningitis (Radang Otak)

    Post  Thunderzips on Sat Nov 29, 2008 11:25 am

    Meningitis is a medical condition caused by inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.The inflammation is usually caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms but may also arise due to certain drugs, or other diseases. Meningitis is potentially life threatening due to the inflammation's proximity to the brain and spinal cord; it is therefore a medical emergency.

    The most common symptoms of meningitis are headache and neck stiffness associated with fever, confusion or altered consciousness, and an inability to tolerate bright light (photophobia) or loud noises (phonophobia). Sometimes, especially in small children, only nonspecific symptoms may be present, such as irritability and drowsiness. If a rash is present, it may indicate a particular cause of meningitis; for instance, meningitis caused by meningococcus bacteria may be accompanied by a characteristic rash.

    Meningitis is diagnosed using a technique called lumbar puncture, which involves inserting a needle into the spinal column to extract a sample of cerebrospinal fluid, the fluid that envelops the brain and spinal cord.Meningitis must be treated promptly with antibiotics and sometimes antiviral drugs. In some situations, corticosteroid drugs can also be used to prevent complications from overactive inflammation. Meningitis can lead to serious long-term consequences such as deafness, epilepsy, hydrocephalus and cognitive deficit, especially if not treated quickly.Some forms of meningitis (such as those associated with meningococcus, Hemophilus influenzae type B, pneumococcus or mumps virus infections) may be prevented by immunization.

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